An electric car is a vehicle with an electric engine that is powered by an autonomous energy source – a battery or alternative fuel. An ordinary car that has been covered in several layers of rust can always be taken for recycling here: https://scrapcar.cash.
How does an electric car work?
Electricity from the battery goes to the socket, then with the accelerator pedal to the electric motor, which in turn starts the mechanism to rotate the wheels of the car. The shaft of the electric motor is directly connected to the wheels, which is why electric cars are not equipped with gearboxes.
Currently, the electric car is becoming increasingly well-known and popular among motorists around the world. It is often referred to as an electric car, electric car, electric car, electric vehicle and EV.
History of the emergence of the electric car
The first prototype of the modern electric car appeared in 1841. It was a cart with an electric motor. But the first electric car for two passengers was designed by engineer I. Romanov in 1899. It was able to move at a speed of up to 40 km/h.
The beginning of the 20th century was marked by the era of development of electric cars. For example, in America about 100 thousand cars were equipped with electric control system, and these were not only cars, but also trucks and even electric buses.
The first electric-powered car that could reach speeds of up to 100 km/h was called La Jamais Contente. Then there were electric cars, which could reach speeds of up to 130-140 km/h.
However, despite the fact that the first electric cars became quite fast, a serious problem was the difficulty of charging the electric engines.
In the mid-20th century, interest in electric cars declined slightly, but with the manifestation of the fuel crisis in the 70s, it flared up again.
Advantages of an electric car
The advantages of such transport are many, and, the most important of them we will consider below.
Eco-friendliness and absence of exhaust fumes. Electric cars do not use petroleum products, antifreeze mixtures, motor and other oils, and therefore there is no emission of harmful exhaust gases. In addition, this type of transport becomes safer in terms of operation, as its fire and explosion hazards are reduced as much as possible.
Low cost of maintenance and operation. Since electricity is several times cheaper than fuel for cars, the savings for the driver in financial terms are obvious.
High efficiency of the electric motor compared to the gasoline engine. Electric motor efficiency reaches 95%, while fuel engine efficiency is only 45%.
Simpler, more affordable, reliable and safe car design.
Possibility of timely recharging of the engine, both from a high-voltage charger (charging station), and from an ordinary household electrical network.
Low noise level due to the small number of moving parts of the car and the mechanical transmission.
Disadvantages of electric car
In addition to the obvious advantages, the electric car has disadvantages.
The imperfection of electric batteries for electric cars. The number one challenge for manufacturers nowadays is to ensure mass production of high-capacity, safe and inexpensive batteries for electric cars. Those batteries used in most electric car models operate only at very high temperatures, and are quite expensive because of the use of precious metals to produce them.
Rapid loss of charge. Among other things, such batteries lose their charge very quickly and require constant long recharging. In this case most of the battery energy is spent not for driving, but for heating/cooling of the car, powering on-board systems and so on.
Disposal. No less important is the issue of safe disposal of electric batteries, because many of them contain toxic substances and even acids.
Possible overloading of power supply networks during mass charging of electric batteries.
Relatively low mileage of electric cars on one battery charge. On average, one battery with a capacity of up to 24 kWh allows an electric car to cover a distance of 140-165 km. With the use of additional systems (air conditioning, cooling, radio, transportation of additional cargo) the distance may be reduced to 85 km.
According to studies, the electric car market will increase 6-7 times until 2015. Global production of electric vehicles in 2015 may be up to 600 thousand per year. Over the past 2-3 years half a million electric cars have been sold in the world.
About 35% of all electric cars were sold in the United States. It is noteworthy that the rate of growth in the popularity of this type of transport has largely exceeded the growth rate of hybrid car sales.